Expressing Conditions II (Rampant pesticide use risks health & Climate change)

Chapters: Rampant pesticide use risks health & Climate change is going to make inequality even worse than it already is

Vocabulary in use

Read the following sentences, and choose the appropriate words from the box below to complete the sentences.

excessive, commercially, pesticides, insecticides, consumption, ailments, cultivation

a. His invention was popular but not commercially successful for it was not bought by many people.
b. Local people complained about the excessive noise coming from the dance bar.
c. Vegetables produced using pesticides are unit for human consumption.
d. Rice cultivation should be promoted in the terai. It really strengthens farmers’ economic condition.
e. Excessive use of insecticides invites health hazards. f. Though insecticides are required to kill the insects in our farm, they are never good for human health.
g. Lots of ailments are caused by pollution in the cities.

Study the following words and their meanings, and using each of the words make sentences of your own.

Word Meaning
dysfunction the fact of a part of the body not working normally
miscarriage the process of giving birth to a baby before it is fully developed and able to survive
ramification complication; difficulty
drastically extremely; radically
exacerbate to make something worse
glaring very easily seen; obvious
lacunae gap
tweak to make slight changes to something to improve it; twist
  1. His heart dysfunction made it difficult for him to walk up a flight of stairs.
  2. She had a miscarriage in her fifth month of pregnancy.
  3. The ramification of the decision caused a lot of confusion among the team.
  4. The new policy changed the work process drastically, causing a lot of frustration among the employees.
  5. The high humidity levels exacerbated his asthma symptoms.
  6. The glaring mistake in the report was not missed by the boss.
  7. There were several lacunae in the research that needed to be addressed.
  8. The engineer spent hours tweaking the design to make it more efficient.

Reading comprehension

Read the news articles above, and decide whether the following statements are true or false.

a. Most of the vegetables available in the market are unsafe for consumption. → True b. Ram Babu Paneru is the scientist at Nepal Agricultural Research Council. → True c. Excessive use of pesticides and insecticides is posing a threat to human health. → True d. Unprescribed use of chemicals spoils the taste of vegetables. → True e. The vegetables must not be consumed for a number of days after pesticide application. → True f. According to a senior entomologist at NARC, there are no effective policies on the implementation of existing ones. → True g. Chelsea Harvey wrote about climate change. → True h. RICE accounted for inequalities within different regions of the world regarding climate change. → False

Read the news articles again, and answer the following questions

a. What are the headlines of the news articles above?

The headlines of the news articles above are "Rampant pesticide use risks health" and "Climate change is going to make inequality even worse than it already is."

b. Who are the authors of the articles?

The author of the first article is not mentioned. The author of the second article is Chelsea Harvey.

c. When were the articles written?

The articles were written on July 19, 2009 and December 8, 2015, respectively.

d. Why is it difficult to carry out the test in labs?

It is difficult to carry out the test in labs due to poor facilities and staff shortages.

e. What is harmful to both the farmers and the consumers?

Unprescribed use of chemicals is harmful to both the farmers and the consumers.

f. Name the places where the scientist Paneru recently visited.

The scientist Paneru recently visited Charaudi and Mahadevsthan villages of Dhading, Empaphant and Baradi of Tanahun, and Tutunga village of Kaski districts.

g. What are the deadly effects of excessive use of pesticides?

The deadly effects of excessive use of pesticides include impotence, liver and kidney dysfunction, disabilities in children, miscarriage in women, and skin, heart, and eye ailments.

h. Who will be disproportionately affected by climate change?

The poor will be disproportionately affected by climate change.

i. Who developed Regional Integrated model of Climate and the Economy?

The Regional Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (RICE) was developed by Francis Dennig and his colleagues.

j. Why was Regional Integrated model of Climate and the Economy developed?

The Regional Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (RICE) was developed to estimate how climate change will affect the economy.


Write down ‘real’, ‘unreal’ or ‘impossible conditions’ next to the following sentences.

a. If everyone recycles paper, trees can be saved. → real
b. If I’d seen you, I would have said hello. → unreal
c. If I had studied harder, I would have passed the test. → unreal
d. If everyone turns off unwanted lights, we can save a lot of electricity. → real
e. If you practise regularly, you can improve your performance. → real
f. Provided that we reduce energy consumption, we can slow down global warming. → real
g. If I were a bird, I’d fly in the sky. → impossible

Complete the following sentences with the appropriate forms of verbs in brackets.

a. Why don’t you explain everything to him? If you don't tell (not tell) him the truth, I’m sure you’ll regret it one day. b. Jerry was here not long ago. If you had come round earlier, you would have seen (see) her. c. I’m so glad that you took me there. If we hadn’t gone there, I would never met (never meet) Robin. d. It was raining heavily. If I hadn’t taken an umbrella, I would not have reached (not reach) to the hospital in time. e. If she gets (get) that job she’s applied for, she will be delighted.

Write a short paragraph beginning with ‘If I were the Prime Minister of the country, I’d .........

If I were the Prime Minister of the country, I'd prioritize the well-being and happiness of all citizens, regardless of their socio-economic status. I'd work towards improving the healthcare system and providing affordable medical facilities to all. I'd also focus on providing quality education to children and adults in order to create a knowledgeable and skilled workforce. I'd strive to create job opportunities and improve the economy, while also ensuring that the natural environment is protected and preserved for future generations. Additionally, I'd work towards creating a more inclusive and equal society by promoting equal rights and opportunities for all citizens and combating discrimination and injustices.



a. When was the text written?

The text was written on December 8, 2015.

b. Which website can you find this article on?

The article can be found on

c. What is the text about?

The text is about the National Geographic Traveller magazine's recommendation of Nepal as a must-see destination for 2016.

d. What is the headline of the article?

The headline of the article is "Nepal 'must see destination' for 2016, recommends leading global magazine."

e. Which tense is used in the heading?

The present simple tense is used in the headline.

f. What is the source of the news?

The source of the news is

Write a similar news report on “Lionel Messi wins FIFA world player award for fifth time”. Use the following clues to develop the report.

Messi-28-year-old - Barcelona and Argentina forward- won the Ballon d’Or trophy on Monday - the world’s best player – 2015- fifth time- won four straight FIFA awards from 2009-2012- “It’s incredible that it’s my fifth.” - “It’s a very special moment for me to be back here on the stage,” Messi said in his acceptance speech - 41.33 per cent of total voting points in a 23 candidate ballot. Ronaldo - 27.76 per cent - Neymar, Messi’s Barcelona teammate - 7.86 percent. Voting - by national team captains and coaches, plus invited journalists, from FIFA member countries.

Lionel Messi, the 28-year-old Barcelona and Argentina forward, won the Ballon d'Or trophy on Monday as the world's best player for the fifth time. Messi won four straight FIFA awards from 2009 to 2012 and said, "It's incredible that it's my fifth. It's a very special moment for me to be back here on the stage." In the 23 candidate ballot, Messi received 41.33% of total voting points, while Ronaldo received 27.76% and Neymar, Messi's Barcelona teammate, received 7.86%. The voting was conducted by national team captains and coaches, as well as invited journalists, from FIFA member countries.

Prepare a brief news report on an event that has recently happened in your locality.

Major Fire Causes Widespread Damage and Disruption in Downtown Area

By Dibas Dauliya January 05, 2023

A major fire broke out in the downtown area of the Bharatpur city yesterday, causing widespread damage and forcing the evacuation of several buildings. The fire, which is believed to have been caused by an electrical malfunction, started in a high-rise office building and quickly spread to nearby buildings.

Firefighters worked for several hours to bring the blaze under control, and fortunately no injuries were reported. The fire caused significant damage to several businesses, including a popular restaurant, a clothing store, and a financial firm. Several apartment buildings in the area were also evacuated as a precaution.

The fire disrupted traffic in the area, with several roads being closed to allow emergency vehicles to access the scene. Officials are still investigating the cause of the fire and working to determine the extent of the damage. The community has rallied around those affected by the fire, with several local organizations and individuals offering assistance and support.