Chapter: Yogamaya: Poet, Teacher, Insurgent
Vocabulary in use
Find the words from the text above that give similar meaning to the following.
a. having two projecting, pointed parts = two-pronged
b. treating people in a cruel and unfair way = oppression
c. twist or twine together = intertwine
d. to remove completely or get rid of something = expunge
e. behaviour or attitudes that show high moral standards = virtue
Match the following words with their meanings.
|a. utopian||ii. imaginary state in which everything is perfect; idealistic|
|b. ideal||i. satisfying one's conception of what is perfect; most suitable|
|c. ultimatum||v. a final demand, the rejection of which will result in retaliation or a breakdown in relation|
|d. parity||iii. the state or condition of being equal, especially as regards status|
|e. convention||iv. a large meeting or conference|
|f. feminist||v. a person who supports or recommends for the rights of women|
Complete the following sentences with the correct information from the text above.
a. The first target of Yogmaya was the cultural and religious oppression of the time.
b. Yogmaya's political campaign took place during the 1930s and ended in 1940. c. Her poetry carries message of equality and mutual respect. d. Yogamaya devised a non-violent political strategy. e. Her movement went further because it included an appeal to end injustice against women and girls.
Read the text, and answer the following question.
a. Who is Yogamaya? Who is Manamaya?
Yogamaya is a poet, teacher, and insurgent who led a political campaign for reform and justice in Nepal during the 1930s. Manamaya is a person who is explaining Yogamaya's story and teachings.
b. What were the two main reasons that made Yogamaya a rebel?
The two main reasons that made Yogamaya a rebel were the cultural and religious oppression of the time, and the corruption and inequality that were allowed to prevail by the Prime Minister and his generals.
c. What was Yogamaya's demand with the government?
Yogamaya's demand with the government was that they grant justice to her and her followers, or they would die.
d. What is the hazurbani? How is it popular?
The hazurbani is a term that refers to the powerful verses composed by Yogmaya. It is popular because it survived and continues to inspire people.
e. Why do you think Yogamaya stopped her revolt?
Yogamaya stopped her revolt because she and 68 of her followers followed her into the thundering current of the Arun River and died.
f. How did Yogmaya die?
Yogmaya died by leading a protest in which she and 68 of her followers followed her into the thundering current of the Arun River.
g. After Yogamaya’s death, what might have been the reaction of the government?
After Yogamaya's death, the government likely responded by covering up the episode and banning all mention of her. They may have also expunged her campaign from the nation's historical record and tried to erase it from political consciousness.
h. Yogamaya’s preaching was in the form of poetry. What have you understood from the given verses?
From the given verses, it can be understood that Yogamaya was calling for equality and mutual respect, and that she was sensitive to the common needs, joys, and sufferings of all people. She also had a deep love for nature and her homeland.
i. What lesson did you learn from this text?
One lesson that can be learned from this text is the importance of fighting for justice and equality, and the power of using non-violent means to bring about social and political change. It is also a reminder of the sacrifices that some people have made in the pursuit of these goals.
Do you know any social reformers of our country? Write down their important contributions.
There have been many social reformers in Nepal who have made important contributions to the country. Here are a few examples:
- Bhimsen Thapa: Bhimsen Thapa was a Nepali politician and military leader who served as the Prime Minister of Nepal from 1806 to 1837. He is known for his efforts to modernize and centralize the Nepali state, and for his role in the Nepal-Britain Treaty of 1816, which helped to establish Nepal as an independent and sovereign nation.
- Matrika Prasad Koirala: Matrika Prasad Koirala was a Nepali politician and leader of the Nepali Congress party. He served as the Prime Minister of Nepal from 1959 to 1960 and from 1971 to 1972. Koirala is known for his efforts to democratize Nepal and for his role in the peaceful transition of power from the Rana dynasty to a parliamentary democracy.
- B.P. Koirala: B.P. Koirala was a Nepali politician and leader of the Nepali Congress party. He served as the Prime Minister of Nepal from 1959 to 1960 and from 1991 to 1994. Koirala is known for his efforts to promote social justice, democracy, and human rights in Nepal, and for his role in the restoration of democracy in the country in 1990.
- Ganga Lal Tuladhar: Ganga Lal Tuladhar was a Nepali social reformer and leader of the Nepal Peace Society. He is known for his efforts to promote non-violent solutions to conflict and his role in the promotion of democracy, human rights, and peace in Nepal.
Active and Passive Voice
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action that the verb expresses and the subject of the sentence. There are two main types of verb voice: active voice and passive voice.
In active voice, the subject of the sentence is the one performing the action expressed by the verb. For example, in the sentence "The cat chased the mouse," the subject (the cat) is performing the action (chased), so the verb is in the active voice.
In passive voice, the subject of the sentence is the recipient of the action expressed by the verb. For example, in the sentence "The mouse was chased by the cat," the subject (the mouse) is receiving the action (was chased), so the verb is in the passive voice.
To convert a sentence from passive voice to active voice, you can identify the subject and the object of the verb, and then switch their positions. For example, to convert the sentence "The mouse was chased by the cat" from passive voice to active voice, you can change it to "The cat chased the mouse."
It's important to note that the use of active or passive voice can affect the clarity and effectiveness of your writing. Active voice tends to be clearer and more direct, while passive voice can be more convoluted and less engaging. In general, it is best to use active voice whenever possible.
Change the verbs in the following sentences into active voice.
a. English is taught in every school in the country.
Every school in the country teaches English.
b. My jacket was made in Thailand.
Thailand made my jacket.
c. Paper was invented by the Chinese.
The Chinese invented paper.
d. His interview is being televised throughout the world.
The world is televising his interview.
e. This street has been surfaced by the municipality.
The municipality surfaced this street.
f. This problem cannot be solved by John.
John cannot solve this problem.
g. Have you been awarded by the university?
Has the university awarded you?
h. You could see that the dress was going to be washed by him.
You could see him going to wash the dress.
i. Let the assembly begun.
Let the assembly begin.
j. Food would have been cooked by Justine.
Justine would have cooked food.
A relative clause is a clause that modifies a noun or pronoun and is introduced by a relative pronoun (such as who, whom, whose, that, or which). It is called a "relative" clause because it relates to the noun or pronoun that it modifies.
Relative clauses are used to provide additional information about a noun or pronoun in a sentence. They can be used to describe the noun or pronoun or to specify which one is being referred to.
Here are some examples of sentences with relative clauses:
The man who is sitting on the chair is a businessman. (The relative clause "who is sitting on the chair" describes the man.) The book that I'm reading is very interesting. (The relative clause "that I'm reading" specifies which book is being referred to.) The woman whose car I borrowed is my neighbor. (The relative clause "whose car I borrowed" describes the woman.) To use a relative clause in a sentence, you can simply add the clause after the noun or pronoun that it modifies. The relative clause should be connected to the rest of the sentence with a relative pronoun (such as who, whom, whose, that, or which).
Complete each of the following sentences with an appropriate relative clause.
a. The day when I met you is still fresh in my mind. b. The back of the yard where I used to play as a child is my favourite place. c. President Bhandari, for whom I voted, is representing us. d. My best friend, whose sister I met at the party, is a famous singer. e. The town where I grew up has changed a lot.
Complete the given conversation using appropriate expressions given below:
- makes us pronounce
- have somebody fix
- made us stay
- get somebody to fix
- makes us do
- made my best friend memorize
- makes us learn
- have your project work done and designed
Mother: What's up? Is there anything wrong today?
Son: Mother, I don't like my English language teacher. He always makes us learn a lot of things.
Mother: I don't think he's wrong. Can you tell me in detail?
Son: He makes us learn vocabulary every day. Besides, he makes us pronounce new words from the dictionary. Mom, not only that, once, he made us stay late to complete our writing exercise. Last month, he made my best friend memorize a long poem within two days. Now, he has given us a project work. How shall I do it? My computer isn't working. It's ridiculous, mom. How can I get my project work done and designed in this short period of time?
Mother: Oh! In fact, I was also planning to have somebody fix it. But don't worry. You can have your project work done and designed at the Cyber cafe. After all, your teacher is helping you with your study differently. Take it easy, boy.
Son: OK, mom.
Go through the guidelines below and prepare your outline to write a description of a place.
Here is an outline for a description of a place:
I. Introduction: Your destination
- Where is it? (e.g. Mount Everest)
- How do we reach there? (e.g. by plane to Kathmandu and then a long drive to base camp)
II. Body paragraph 1: Purpose of the visit
- Religious significance (e.g. Mount Everest is considered a holy mountain by the local Sherpa people)
- Natural sites (e.g. stunning views of the Himalayan range)
- Historical significance (e.g. Mount Everest was the site of Sir Edmund - Hillary and Tenzing Norgay's historic climb in 1953)
- Personal interest (e.g. a lifelong dream to visit this iconic mountain)
III. Body paragraph 2: Your findings/observations
- What do you see? (e.g. towering peaks, glaciers, frozen lakes)
- What do you hear? (e.g. the sound of the wind and the occasional avalanche)
- What do you taste? (e.g. local Sherpa cuisine)
- What do you smell? (e.g. the crisp, clean mountain air)
- What do you feel? (e.g. a sense of awe and accomplishment)
- Why should people visit this place? (e.g. for the opportunity to challenge themselves and experience the beauty and majesty of the natural world)
Read the description of Devghat, and write a similar type of description of the place you are familiar with.
Have you ever been to Pokhara? It is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Nepal. Located in the Kaski district, Pokhara is a city of natural beauty, with stunning views of the Annapurna mountain range and the tranquil Phewa Lake. To get to Pokhara, you can take a bus or a plane from Kathmandu.
People visit Pokhara for a variety of reasons. Some come to experience the stunning natural beauty, with opportunities for hiking, rafting, and paragliding. Others come to visit the many cultural and historical sites, such as the International Mountain Museum, the Mahendra Cave, and the Peace Pagoda. And still others come to relax and enjoy the laid-back atmosphere of this lakeside city.
Pokhara has a vibrant nightlife, with many bars, restaurants, and cafes to choose from. The city also has a thriving arts scene, with galleries and performance spaces showcasing the work of local artists.
No matter what your interests, Pokhara has something to offer. From the adrenaline-pumping adventures to the peaceful contemplation of nature, this city has it all. So why wait? Plan your trip to Pokhara today and experience all that this beautiful city has to offer.
Write a descriptive paragraph about the person who has great influence in your life.
The person who has had the greatest influence in my life is my grandmother. She is a kind and compassionate woman who has always been there for me, no matter what. Despite facing numerous challenges and obstacles in her own life, she has always remained positive and optimistic. She has taught me the value of hard work, the importance of education, and the power of kindness. Her unwavering support and love have helped me to become the person I am today. I am forever grateful for her influence in my life and am blessed to have her as a role model.