Confirming and Denying (Jitiya Festival)

Chapter: Jitiya Festival

Vocabulary in use

Read the text above, and find the synonyms of the following words from the text.

luck - good fortune
harmony - solidarity
statues - idols
renowned - popular
poured - effused

Reading comprehension

Read the text again and decide whether the following statements are true or false.

a. All women and unmarried girls celebrate Jitiya festival. → False
b. It is celebrated all over Nepal. → False
c. Married women never go to Maiti to celebrate Jitiya festival. → False
d. It is celebrated for three days. → True
e. Even the eagle and the jackal are remembered and offered prasad by the devotees of Jitiya. → True
f. Jimutavahana is a legendary deity. → True
g. Singing and dancing do not play any role during the Jitiya festival. → False

Read the text again and answer these questions.

a. Why is Jitiya festival celebrated?

Jitiya festival is celebrated by married women in Nepal for the good fortune of their children, husband, and family.

b. How long is this festival celebrated?

Jitiya festival is celebrated for three days.

c. What do married women do on the second day of celebration?

On the second day of celebration, the married women fast the whole day and go to a river, pond, or well to make an idol of Jimutavahana and offer prayers.

d. How and when do married women scrub their house?

Married women scrub their house with cow's dung to make it sacred on the first day of the festival.

e. What is the relationship between Masabashi and the Sun?

Masabashi was an unmarried princess who was a daughter of the sun god.

f. What do married women offer to Jimutavahana before they break their fast?

Married women offer fruits, milk, and curd to Jimutavahana before they break their fast on the last day of the festival.

g. How can the celebration of Jitiya promote harmony among people?

The celebration of Jitiya brings people together and strengthens social bonds, which can promote harmony in society.

Write in about 200 words about a festival of your own community. Then share it with your friends.

Dashain is a major festival in Nepal that is celebrated by Hindus all over the country. It is a ten-day festival that takes place in the month of September or October and is marked by the worship of the goddess Durga and her various incarnations. The festival is a time of joy and celebration for families and communities and is an opportunity for people to come together and strengthen their social bonds.

The first nine days of Dashain are dedicated to the worship of the goddess Durga and her nine incarnations. On these days, people visit temples, offer prayers and sacrifices, and participate in various rituals and ceremonies. The tenth day, which is the most important day of the festival, is called Vijayadashami or Dussehra. On this day, people offer prayers to the goddess Durga and celebrate her victory over the demon Mahishasura.

One of the most distinctive features of Dashain is the use of tika, which is a red dot that is applied to the forehead as a symbol of good luck and blessings. During Dashain, people visit their elders and receive tika and blessings from them. This is an important way of showing respect and maintaining family ties during the festival.

In addition to the religious activities, Dashain is also a time of celebration and enjoyment. People decorate their homes, prepare special foods and sweets, and participate in various cultural and social events. Children are given new clothes and toys, and everyone enjoys the festive atmosphere that prevails during this time.

Overall, Dashain is a very important and meaningful festival for the people of Nepal. It is a time of joy, celebration, and renewal, and is an opportunity for families and communities to come together and strengthen their bonds.

Do you believe that cultural understanding strengthens the unity of your community and the country as a whole? Give your opinion.

Yes, I believe that cultural understanding strengthens the unity of a community and the country as a whole. When people have a better understanding of the culture and traditions of their community and country, they are able to appreciate and respect the diversity that exists within their society. This understanding helps to foster a sense of unity and belonging, as people are able to see the value and richness that different cultures bring to their community.

Furthermore, cultural understanding helps to promote cooperation and collaboration among people, as it allows individuals to see beyond their own cultural perspectives and understand the needs and concerns of others. This can lead to more effective communication and problem-solving within a community, as people are able to find common ground and work together towards shared goals.

In addition, cultural understanding can help to reduce conflicts and tensions that may arise due to cultural differences. By understanding and respecting the cultural practices and beliefs of others, people are able to interact with each other more harmoniously and build positive relationships. This can lead to a more cohesive and harmonious society, where people are able to live and work together in harmony.

Overall, cultural understanding plays a critical role in strengthening the unity of a community and the country as a whole. It helps to promote mutual respect and understanding, foster cooperation and collaboration, and reduce conflicts and tensions. By fostering cultural understanding within our communities and countries, we can create a more harmonious and cohesive society where everyone is able to thrive.

Rewrite the following sentences as in the example.

a. Tigers and elephants live in the forest. (rhino and deer)
Tigers and elephants live in the forest. So do rhino and deer.

b. Devkota wasn’t a politician. (Parijat)
Devkota wasn’t a politician. Neither was Parijat.

a. Rina likes folk songs. (Kalika)
Rina likes folk songs. So does Kalika.

b. Binda did not buy a watch yesterday. (my mother)
Binda did not buy a watch yesterday. Neither did my mother.

c. Harry will come next week. (my brother)
Harry will come next week. So will my brother.

d. We prepare delicious food. (Shiva)
We prepare delicious food. So does Shiva.

e. They never read English. (Santosh)
They never read English. Neither does Santosh.

f. Muslims don’t eat pork. (Jews)
Muslims don’t eat pork. Jews don’t either.

g. Hindus don’t eat beef. (I)
Hindus don’t eat beef. I don’t either.

h. We haven’t been to Ilam yet. (Nilam)
We haven’t been to Ilam yet. Neither has Nilam.

Match the sentences to their correct question tags.

a. Don't say anything to Ananda about this, will you?
b. I'm supposed to be having lunch with Kopila, aren't I?
c. You'd better stop gossiping, hadn't you?
d. She'd rather have a cup of tea, wouldn't she?
e. Prakash went to the market, didn't he?
f. Dipa used to crack jokes in the class, didn't she?
g. Junu had a wonderful dream, didn't she?
h. You worked hard, didn't you?


Now write an essay on the topic "Advantages and Disadvantages of Computers in Education." Begin your essay with a good introductory paragraph consisting of a thesis statement. Use any three of the topic sentences given below to make the body paragraphs. Elaborate the topic sentences in separate paragraphs with necessary supporting details, descriptions, examples, reasons, comparisons and explanations. Remember a paragraph should not contain irrelevant information. All the information in a paragraph must be related to the topic sentence, and all the topic sentences must be connected to the main point of the essay, i.e. the thesis statement. Conclude your essay with a suitable concluding paragraph.

Topic sentences:

a. It is clear that the Internet has provided students with access to more information than ever before.
b. Nobody can argue that the acquisition of knowledge is more fun and easier with computers.
c. However, many disagree and feel that technology deprives people of real human interaction.
d. Furthermore over dependence on technology can make the students less creative and passive.
e. As computers are becoming an important tool for teaching, teachers should be aware of their roles as guides in the acquisition of knowledge rather than transmitters of facts.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Computers in Education

Computers have become an integral part of education in recent years, with many schools and universities relying heavily on technology for teaching and learning. While there are certainly numerous advantages to using computers in education, there are also some potential drawbacks that must be carefully considered.

One of the main advantages of computers in education is the access they provide to vast amounts of information. With just a few clicks of a mouse, students can access a wealth of resources and information on virtually any topic imaginable. This access to information can be incredibly valuable for students, as it allows them to explore new ideas and concepts in greater depth and detail.

Another advantage of computers in education is that they can make the acquisition of knowledge more fun and easier for students. With interactive software, games, and multimedia resources, learning can be a much more engaging and enjoyable experience for students. Moreover, computers can help students to learn at their own pace, allowing them to work through material at a pace that is comfortable for them.

However, there are also some potential drawbacks to using computers in education. One concern is that technology may deprive students of real human interaction. With the proliferation of online learning programs, many students are now learning entirely through a computer screen, rather than in a traditional classroom setting. This lack of face-to-face interaction can make it more difficult for students to build strong relationships with their peers and teachers, and may lead to feelings of isolation and disconnection.

Another potential drawback of computers in education is that they may make students less creative and passive. When students rely too heavily on computers and other forms of technology, they may become less reliant on their own critical thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. This can lead to a lack of creativity and innovation, as students may be less likely to think outside the box and come up with new and innovative ideas. It is important to consider this potential drawback and ensure that students are using technology in a way that encourages and supports critical thinking and problem-solving skills, rather than hindering them.

In conclusion, while computers have brought many benefits to education, it is important that we carefully consider the potential drawbacks and ensure that we are using technology in a way that promotes learning and critical thinking. As computers become an increasingly important tool for teaching, it is important that teachers do not become overly reliant on them and instead use them as a tool to supplement their teaching and facilitate learning. By considering both the advantages and disadvantages of computers in education, we can ensure that we are using technology in a way that promotes the best possible learning outcomes for students.