A. Find the words from the text that have the following meanings.
a. the height of an object or point in relation to sea level or ground level → altitude
b. a group of atoms bonded together → molecule
c. a state in which opposing forces are balanced → equilibrium
d. to change from a gas or vapour to a liquid → condense
e. a piece of unreliable information that is repeated so often that it is accepted as the fact → factoid
f. a space or container from which the air has been removed → vacuum
g. a device that is used to remove blockages from the drain of a basin or tub → plunger
B. Complete the sentences with the correct words or phrases from the text.
a. Water bubbles break down if vapour pressure inside and outside the bubbles is equal.
b. As the altitude goes up, the boiling point of water decreases.
c. Random motion of molecules or particles is called thermal motion.
d. If the door does not open, try pushing the key in the lock.
e. Certain chemicals can induce undesirable changes in the nervous system.
C. Answer these questions.
a. What is the speed of the water particles compared with?
The speed of the water particles varies, with some moving faster and some moving slower, similar to how people have different heights in a group.
b. How are bubbles formed in the boiling water?
Bubbles in boiling water are formed when the water molecules gain enough energy due to increased temperature and create small pockets of water vapor in the gas phase.
c. Mention two things on which external pressure depends.
External pressure depends on the depth of water and the density of water.
d. How is the atmosphere related to the pressure of water?
The atmosphere increases the pressure on the surface of the liquid, which is one of the factors contributing to the external pressure.
e. What would happen if the atmospheric pressure on the liquid water was decreased?
If the atmospheric pressure on the liquid water was decreased, the pressure in the liquid would also decrease. If the pressure was reduced enough to match the vapor pressure, the water particles would have enough energy to form boiling bubbles even at room temperature.
f. What would the experimenter gain if s/he pulled the plunger out?
By pulling the plunger out, the experimenter decreases the pressure in the liquid, inducing boiling without requiring a significant increase in temperature.
D. What would happen on the Earth if there were no gravity? Discuss possibilities with your friends.
If there were no gravity on Earth, everything would float away. We would all be weightless, and there would be no way to stay on the ground. The atmosphere would also float away, so we would not have any air to breathe. We would all die.
A. Match the clauses in column A with their appropriate continuation in column B.
a. If you go to Taplejung → iii. you can see the Pathibhara temple.
b. You will get well soon → i. if you follow the doctor's advice.
c. The horse won't kick you → ii. unless you go behind it.
d. If I were you → vi. I would see a doctor.
e. What happens → iv. if you heat water?
f. I would miss the bus → v. if I did not reach the bus stop on time.
g. Provided that they discussed properly → vii. they won't have misunderstanding.
h. As long as they communicate well → viii. the problem might be solved.
B. Complete the following sentences using the correct form of verbs in brackets.
a. If it is cold, I ..... (wear) a coat.
If it is cold, I will wear a coat.
b. If Purna helps with the housework, his mother ..... (have) more time for him.
If Purna helps with the housework, his mother will have more time for him.
c. If I were a bird, I ..... (make) a good observation of the land below.
If I were a bird, I would make a good observation of the land below.
d. If I ..... (go) to Mustang, I would visit Muktinath.
If I went to Mustang, I would visit Muktinath.
e. I I ..... (be) a billionaire, I would buy a castle.
If I were a billionaire, I would buy a castle.
f. You'd save petrol if you ..... (drive) more carefully.
You'd save petrol if you drove more carefully.
g. Say 'hello' if you ..... (see) her.
Say 'hello' if you see her.
h. Provided that you ..... (consent), I will take a few days' leave next week.
Provided that you consent, I will take a few days' leave next week.
i. Take care of the pence, the pounds ..... (take) care of themselves.
Take care of the pence, the pounds will take care of themselves.
Write stepwise instructions to draw a jellyfish as given below, You may use the following words and phrases.
circle, lines, semi-straight, creaky, on top of, above, below
How to Draw a Jellyfish:
- Draw a circle for the jellyfish's head.
- Make a line going down from the circle for the jellyfish's body.
- Draw some semi-straight lines below the body for the jellyfish's tentacles.
- Make the tentacles look more natural by adding creaky curves.
- On top of the jellyfish's head, draw two big round eyes with small dots in the middle for pupils.
- Draw a little smile below the eyes to give the jellyfish a friendly face.
- Finally, add some shading or color. Use light blue above the jellyfish and darker blue below to make it look like it's in water.
Great job! You've now drawn a jellyfish!