Battle of the Oranges

Reading I

A. Match the words with their meaning.

a. mush → iii. a soft thick mass of mixture

b. jerk → v. to make something move with a sudden short sharp movement

c. concussion → vi. a temporary loss of consciousness

d. hurl → i. to throw something violently in a particular direction

e. pulp → vii. the soft part inside the fruits and vegetables

f. clutch → ii. to hold something tightly

g. sip → iv. to drink something, taking a very small amount each time

B. Write 'True' for true statements and 'False' for false ones.

a. The tourists are informed to wear a red hat through public notices. → True

b. Aranceri seems dressed in Doctor Whoesque costumes. → True

c. When a cart approaches, aranceri run away from the square. → False

d. The narrator feels bored during the festival period. → False

e. The volunteers encourage the visitors to join the battle. → False

f. The narrator accepts Massi's offer. → False

C. Answer the following questions.

a. What does the red hat symbolize?

Red hat is a symbol of the carnival itself and carries the significance of freedom. Historically, the hat was worn by liberated slaves during Roman times and by peasants who revolted against feudal lords in the Middle Ages.

b. How does the narrator feel when she wipes her face?

When the narrator wipes her face, she experiences a mix of shock and worry. Initially, she mistakes the substance she sees as blood, causing her to be alarmed and concerned about her well-being. The possibility of needing medical attention adds to her anxiety.

c. What does the square look like after an hour battle of the oranges?

After an hour of battle, the square is covered in a thick layer of a sludgy mixture comprising orange pulp and horse manure. This concoction creates a messy and unpleasant scene. Additionally, the mixture emits a sharp, sweet-and-sour odor that fills the air.

d. How do aranceri members chase the cart?

The aranceri members chase the cart by actively running behind it and throwing oranges at it.

e. Does Silvia enjoy this carnival?

Yes, Silvia thoroughly enjoys this carnival. She expresses that this is the moment they eagerly anticipate throughout the year. Silvia believes that the carnival is beneficial for their psychological well-being.

f. Why does Massi say, "Forget the nets"?

Massi says "Forget the nets" because he believes that if people want to truly experience the carnival, they need to be in the middle of the battle.

D. You might know about some unique festivals like "Battle of the Oranges". Collect some information about any one of such festivals.


Dashain is the grandest and most widely celebrated festival in Nepal, encompassing a joyful and festive atmosphere. Spanning 15 days, Dashain holds immense cultural and religious significance for Nepalese people. It commemorates the victory of gods over demons and signifies the triumph of good over evil. Families come together to perform various religious rituals, seek blessings from elders, and offer prayers at temples. The festival is characterized by the flying of colorful kites, playing traditional games like swing rides, and indulging in delicious feasts. Dashain is a time of joy, harmony, and togetherness as we embrace the spirit of celebration, gratitude, and renewal.

Grammar I

A. Change the following sentences into indirect speech. The beginning of each sentence is given.

a. "Are you working tonight?"
Agaman asked Timothy if he was working tonight.

b. "Is this the road to the station?"
A stranger wanted to know from me if that was the road to the station.

c. "Did you do your homework?"
My friend inquired her if she had done her homework.

d. "Have you been to Paris?"
The tourist was asked if he had been to Paris.

e. "How long have you been working in this company?"
Usha inquired Anuj how long he had been working in that company.

f. "What flavour ice cream did you have at the pary?"
My mother asked me what flavor ice cream I had at the party.

g. "Have you studied reported speech before?"
The teacher wanted to know if they had studied reported speech before.

h. " Where will you stay tonight?"
I asked him where he would stay that night.

i. "How many players were shown yellow card by the referee?"
Sumangal asked his friend how many players had been shown yellow cards by the referee.

j. "What magic did the medicine have on the patient?"
Sarita wanted to know from Sommaya what magic the medicine had on the patient.

B. Change the following remarks into reported speech.

a. Kritika asked me, "why did you go out last night?"
Kritika asked me why I had gone out the previous night.

b. "Who was that beautiful woman, Usha?" said Sunita.
Sunita asked Usha who that beautiful woman had been.

c. "How is your mother?" said Gaurab to Yang Dolma.
Gaurab asked Yang Dolma how her mother was.

d. My friend wanted to know, "What are you going to do at the weekend?"
My friend asked me what I was going to do at the weekend.

e. "Where will you live after graduation?" said my teacher.
My teacher asked me where I would live after graduation.

f. Anusha said to Melisha,"What were you doing when I saw you?"
Anusha asked Melisha what she had been doing when she had seen her.

g. I said to the piligrim, "How was the journey?"
I asked the pilgrim how the journey had been.

h. "How often do you go to cinema?" said Krishana.
Krishna asked how often I went to the cinema.

i. "Do you live in Patan?" said the Principal.
The Principal asked if I lived in Patan.

j. Niraj said to Luniva,"Did Phadindra arrive on time?"
Niraj asked Luniva if Phadindra had arrived on time.

Writing I

Write an essay describing a festival which is celebrated in your community. Include its brief history, people involved, major activities, religious or social importance, duration, and drawbacks, if any.


Dashain, the largest and most significant festival in Nepal, is a vibrant and cherished cultural event that holds immense religious and social importance. This essay aims to provide an overview of Dashain, including its brief history, the people involved, major activities, religious or social significance, duration, and potential drawbacks.

Dashain has its roots in Hindu mythology and commemorates the victory of gods over demons. According to ancient legends, the festival signifies the triumph of good over evil and is associated with the goddess Durga, who defeated the demon Mahisasura. Dashain also marks the harvest season when farmers celebrate the bountiful crops.

Dashain brings together people from all walks of life in Nepal. It is a time for families and communities to unite, renew bonds, and celebrate together. Nepalese people residing both within the country and abroad eagerly anticipate this festival, often traveling back to their hometowns to celebrate with their loved ones.

This festival involves various religious ceremonies and rituals. Devotees visit temples, perform prayers, and make animal sacrifices to honor the goddess Durga. It is a time for families to come together, with relatives gathering at ancestral homes for blessings, gift exchanges, and festive meals. Kite flying is a popular tradition, with people engaging in friendly battles and showcasing their skills. Swing rides, decorated and tied to tall trees, provide joy to both children and adults. Cultural performances, including music, dance, and dramas, further enrich the festive atmosphere.

Dashain holds immense religious significance as it honors the goddess Durga and celebrates the victory of good over evil. It is a time for spiritual reflection, offering prayers, and seeking blessings for prosperity and well-being. Additionally, Dashain fosters a sense of unity and togetherness among Nepalese people, strengthening family and community bonds.

Dashain is celebrated for 15 days, beginning from the bright lunar fortnight of the month of Ashwin (September/October) and concluding with the full moon day, known as Kojagrat Purnima. The festival spans multiple weeks, allowing ample time for people to engage in various activities and traditions associated with Dashain.

Dashain is celebrated for 15 days, beginning from the bright lunar fortnight of the month of Ashwin (September/October) and concluding with the full moon day, known as Kojagrat Purnima. The festival spans multiple weeks, allowing ample time for people to engage in various activities and traditions associated with Dashain.

Dashain is an extraordinary festival that reflects the rich cultural heritage and deep-rooted traditions of Nepal. It brings joy, togetherness, and spiritual fulfillment to Nepalese communities. Through its rituals, activities, and celebrations, Dashain reaffirms the values of family, unity, and the triumph of good over evil. It remains an integral part of our identity and continues to be celebrated with great enthusiasm, fostering a sense of belonging and cultural pride.